To survive, city dwellers sold personal valuables, made artisan craft-goods for sale or barter, and planted gardens. NEPmen also included rural artisan craftsmen selling their wares on the private market. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Many Communist Party members considered this an exploitation of urban consumers. Lenin brought in what he called the. Recent migrants to cities left because they still had ties to villages. Dubbed the Nepmen, they were mostly shopkeepers, salesmen and market stall holders who obtained items wholesale or secondhand and then sold them for a profit, a capitalistic activity that was strictly forbidden before 1921. Trotsky believed that the state should repossess all output to invest in capital formation.
This allowed a large sector of the market to return to normal. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1992. Factories lacked 30,000 workers in 1919. Russian farmers were once again permitted to buy and sell at market, while a new group of merchants, retailers and profiteers, dubbed the Nepmen, began to emerge. By the mid 1920s Russias agricultural output had been restored to pre-World War I levels. War Communism of 1918 to 1921) and introduced a system of mixed economy which allowed private individuals to own motivating Leadership small enterprises, 2 while the state continued to control banks, foreign trade, and large industries. A famine would kill about 5 million Russians by 1922. An American press report on the release of the New Economic Policy.